Democrats Introduce Bill that Would Mandate Legal Representation for Unaccompanied Children and Vulnerable Immigrants

February 29th, 2016

On February 11, several Democratic senators introduced the “Fair Day in Court for Kids Act of 2016,” which mandates that unaccompanied children and vulnerable immigrants receive legal representation.  The bill requires the government to appoint and pay for counsel for unaccompanied children and particularly vulnerable individuals, such as persons with a disability; victims of abuse, torture, or violence; or individuals whose circumstances are such that the appointment of counsel is necessary to help ensure fair resolution and efficient adjudication of the proceedings. The bill also clarifies and expands access to counsel for other immigrants in removal proceedings, whether or not they are detained, and requires DHS to provide such immigrants with all relevant charging documents before their removal proceedings can move forward.  Moreover, information about legal services at detention facilities would be provided through formal procedures that ensure that legal orientation programs are available for all detainees. Also, a two-year pilot program to provide legal orientation programs to nondetained asylum seekers would be created in at least two immigration courts.

Our nation has one of the most complicated immigration systems in the world, and one of its huge flaws is that it does not guarantee legal representation to individuals facing deportation. This bill represents a huge step toward ensuring fairness in these complex proceedings.

Supreme Court to Review Administration’s Executive Actions on Immigration

February 29th, 2016

President Obama’s late 2014 executive order on immigration that would offer protection from deportation (and work permits) to more than four million undocumented immigrants has been tied up in the courts since February 16, 2015.  However, the Supreme Court has recently granted certiorari to the case known as Texas v. U.S., and will be reviewing the Fifth Circuit’s decision to uphold the court-ordered injunction.  The Justice Department’s legal brief is due in March, followed by oral argument in late April or early May. The Supreme Court is expected to reach a decision on the case sometime in June.

The Supreme Court has directed the parties to provide a full briefing on the legality of DAPA (Deferred Action for Parents of Americans) under the “Take Care” Clause of the Constitution (Art. II, §3).  This is a unique turn of events because the court rarely adds issues to the case that were not heard on appeal below.  Consequently, the Supreme Court’s holding in Texas v. U.S. may have serious implications concerning the responsibilities and power of the executive branch for this and future administrations.

That said, if the Court were to issue an evenly divided 4-4 decision (now a possibility with the recent passing of Justice Scalia), the opinion would only have the effect of affirming the Fifth Circuit’s decision; it would not necessarily preclude other circuits from deciding differently.

News In Brief: Registration for 2017 Diversity Lottery Open Until 11/3/2015; TPS Extended for Nationals from Haiti and Work Authorization Extended for Haitian F-1 Students; Update for Yemeni Nationals

November 6th, 2015

The following additional items may be of interest to our readers:

Registration for 2017 Diversity Lottery Open Until 11/3/2015:  The 2017 Diversity Lottery Visa Program (DV-2017) opened on 10/1/2015 and closes at noon (EST) on 11/3/15. Applicants from countries with historically low rates of immigration to the United States can now register using d States. For fiscal year 2016, 50,000 diversity visas (DVs) will be available.

Applicants who are selected in the lottery (“selectees”) must meet simple, but strict, eligibility requirements in order to qualify for a diversity visa. Selectees are chosen through a randomized computer drawing.

entry the electronic DV entry form (E-DV) at DOS provides information on eligibility, entry period, completing the electronic entry, selection of applicants, and FAQs.

 TPS Extended for Nationals from Haiti and Work Authorization Extended for Haitian F-1 Students:  DHS extended the designation of Haiti for temporary protected status (TPS) for 18 months, effective 1/23/16 through 7/22/17. The 60-day re-registration period runs from 8/25/15 through 10/26/15. Rules about re-registration and initial applications are provided at DHS also extended employment authorization for Haitian F-1 nonimmigrant students experiencing severe economic hardship as a direct result of the 1/12/10 earthquake in Haiti.

Update for Yemeni Nationals: In September, DHS designated the Republic of Yemen for temporary protected status (TPS) for a period of 18 months, effective 9/3/15 through 3/3/17. The 180-day registration period for eligible individuals to submit TPS applications runs until 3/1/16. Meanwhile, the suspension of operations in Sana’a has led to problems for Yemeni citizens seeking to be interviewed for their immigrant visas. While the U.S. embassies in Cairo and Algiers are the designated immigrant visa (IV) processing posts for Yemeni IV cases, Yemeni citizens have difficulty traveling to Egypt since they are required to obtain visas to enter Egypt and the Embassy of Egypt in Yemen is closed. Those Yemeni citizens who made it to Egypt report waiting months before getting their interview scheduled. As a result, DOS has apparently transferred those cases to Algeria, and advises that applicants scheduled prior to August 31 and unable to appear for their interview can request transferring their case to a post where they can appear. For Yemenis unclear about where their case has been transferred, DOS advises contacting



Visa Bulletin Changes

October 29th, 2015

The Department of State (DOS) and USCIS announced new procedural changes to the Visa Bulletin that may provide some relief to immigrant visa applicants affected by current visa backlogs. Under the new procedure, the Visa Bulletin presents information regarding immigrant visa number availability differently. Now, there are two sets of cut-off dates for both family- and employment-based immigrant visa categories, “Application Final Action Date” and “Date for Filing.”

The “Application Final Action Date” is essentially the same as the “Priority Date” cut-off date of previous years.  The “Date for Filing” is new.  The Department of State will use this date to determine when an immigrant visa applicant may assemble and submit required documents to the National Visa Center (NVC), following receipt of notification from the NVC. USCIS, however, will not automatically use the “Date for Filing” in adjustment of status applications. Rather, it will follow the “Application Final Action Date” chart for accepting adjustment of status applications. However, upon determining that additional immigrant visas are available, USCIS may decide to then accept adjustment applications based on the “Date for Filing” chart. USCIS expects to make that determination within a week of the posting of each new Visa Bulletin. For November 2015, USCIS has determined that applicants for adjustment may use the “Date for Filing” chart.

While the new system does not make applicants in high-demand immigrant visa categories permanent residents any sooner – it does not eliminate the severe backlogs experienced by foreign nationals of certain countries – it will provide the opportunity for individuals to obtain employment authorization and travel documents sooner than they would otherwise, which alleviates the dependency on visas for temporary work authorization, and allows them to change employers.  The new procedure also should allow cut-off dates to advance at a slower and steadier pace in contrast to the widely varying speeds with which they advanced in the past

CBP Testing New Technology to Collect Biometric Data from Departing Foreign Nationals

September 30th, 2015

U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) has begun testing a mobile device to collect biometric data from a limited number of foreign national air travelers departing the United States. Officers will compare biometrics collected via the handheld device to the biometrics collected when the traveler entered the United States.  The testing will begin at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport and will be expand this fall to Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, Newark, New York, San Francisco, and Washington-Dulles. The project is expected to run through June 2016. After this period, CBP will use the results to determine its future plans for biometric exit.

During testing, CBP officers will be stationed at the passenger-loading bridge of selected flights departing the United States with a handheld biometric device. CBP officers will scan selected foreign national air travelers’ fingerprints and passports using the device. The traveler’s data will be matched to their entry data and then stored in data systems managed by DHS.  Only non-U.S. citizens will be included in the testing.

Several federal statutes mandate DHS to biometrically record the entry and departure of foreign visitors.  The CBP’s entry/exit strategy is designed around three goals: “identify and close the biographic gaps and enhance the entry-exit system; perform targeted biometric operations; and transform the entry/exit process through the use of emerging biometric technologies.”

Detention of Immigrant Children – Litigated Some 30 Years Ago in Flores v. Reno – Back Before the Courts

September 30th, 2015

Some 30 years ago in 1985, a lawsuit, Flores v. Reno, was brought against the government for detaining minor immigrant children in secure and unlicensed facilities. Twelve years later, in 1997, the government entered into a nationwide settlement agreement and agreed not to detain such children anymore. Those issues are back before the courts in the wake of DHS’s detention of Central American immigrant children and their mothers, which began in the summer of 2014.

The current litigation, brought in federal district court in February 2015, alleges that the government breached the 1997 Flores settlement agreement by detaining immigrant children in the same kind of facilities. After the parties failed to reach an agreement in July, the judge in the case, Judge Dolly Gee, stepped in and issued an order to show cause, essentially a ruling in which she found that the government had, in fact, breached the Flores agreement and that it could not hold the children any longer in these facilities. Judge Gee also found that the immigrant children should be released and preferably to a parent, including the parent with whom they had entered the country unless that parent posed a flight or security risk.

In its lengthy response, the government argued that the circumstances had changed since April 2015 and that it no longer had a blanket policy of detention. It argued that it now had a process whereby children and their mothers who passed the first hurdle of establishing “credible fear” – the first step toward winning asylum – were being released. It also argued that the court should revisit the order and reassess a number of the terms. Furthermore, the government asserted that detention ensured certain medical care and access to counsel to which the children would not be afforded if released. Plaintiffs replied. They argued that the government’s detention policies have not, in fact, changed and that access to counsel and medical care were, in fact, impeded by incarceration. Plaintiffs also argued that expedited removal is not required by law and that the government could issue a Notice to Appear and at the same time parole the women and children into the U.S. while they undergo their removal proceedings in immigration court at a later date.  Plaintiffs pointed out that the government has in fact paroled in some children and women, at least for a period of time in July while they await their removal proceedings.

The judge very quickly denied the government’s request for oral argument and signaled that she is ready to rule on the case. A decision is expected by August 24.  Assuming the order is issued for the plaintiffs, the government can appeal but it is not expected to do so. Instead, it is believed that the government may respond to pressure from advocates and members of Congress who have called for the end of family detention and will comply with the judge’s order in the case.  Stay tuned.

DHS to Implement Additional Security Measures to the Visa Waiver Program

September 25th, 2015

DHS will be introducing a number of additional or revised security criteria for all participants in the Visa Waiver Program. These criteria will apply to both new and current members of the program:

  • requiring use of e-passports (passports containing an electronic chip that holds the same information that is printed on the passport’s data page as well as biometric identifier) for all VWP travelers coming to the United States.
  • requiring use of the INTERPOL Lost and Stolen Database to screen travelers crossing a visa waiver country’s borders.
  • seeking permission to expand the use of U.S. federal air marshals on international flights from visa waiver countries to the United States.

ESTA travelers are encouraged to make sure that their visa waiver passports are compliant.

Green Cards with “Signature Waived” are Acceptable for I-9 Purposes

September 25th, 2015

USCIS has clarified that permanent resident cards that say “signature waived” are acceptable documents for Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification, as long as they are unexpired and reasonably appear to be genuine and relate to the person presenting them. Since February 2015, USCIS has been waiving the signature requirement for foreign nationals entering the United States for the first time as lawful permanent residents after obtaining an immigrant visa abroad.

News In Brief: DHS Announces Trilateral Agreement to Expand Trusted Traveler Programs; Derivative Citizenship Requirements Violate Equal Protection, Says Second Circuit: Citizenship Discrimination Claims Against City of Eugene and Staffing Company Settled

September 18th, 2015

The following additional items may be of interest to our readers:

DHS Announces Trilateral Agreement to Expand Trusted Traveler Programs: A new agreement signed by Homeland Security Secretary Jeh Johnson and his Canadian and Mexican counterparts will make it easier for eligible travelers in the United States, Mexico, and Canada to apply for expedited screening programs at international airports. Eligible travelers will be able to apply for each program beginning in 2016.

Derivative Citizenship Requirements Violate Equal Protection, Says Second Circuit: The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit held that the more stringent physical presence requirements for derivative citizenship placed on unwed citizen fathers than on unwed citizen mothers under the 1952 immigration law violates the Fifth Amendment’s guarantee of equal protection.

Citizenship Discrimination Claims Against City of Eugene and Staffing Company Settled:  DOJ recently announced a couple of settlement agreements resolving citizenship discrimination claims.  First, DOJ settled a case with Eugene, Oregon, to resolve allegations that the city violated the anti-discrimination provision of the INA by improperly restricting law enforcement positions to U.S. citizens at the time of hire and excluding any applicants who were not U.S. citizens.  The city of Eugene had required its law enforcement personnel to be U.S. citizens at the time of hire even though Oregon law requires police officers to be citizens within 18 months of hire. Second, DOJ settled a case with Priority Fulfillment Services, Inc. and PFSweb, Inc. after the company rejected valid Puerto Rican birth certificates and required individuals to present naturalization documents to prove their citizenship status, even though Puerto Ricans are U.S. citizens by birth.

Ongoing Delays for Interview-Waivable Cases

September 18th, 2015

Since 2013, there have been extensive adjudication delays of certain interview-waivable, family-based adjustment of status cases held at the National Benefits Center (NBC), with no real relief available while the case waits. Interview-waivable cases are those that the USCIS determines a personal interview at a USCIS field office is not required for adjustment adjudication. While in theory this is a benefit because the individual is not required to appear for an interview, in practice delayed cases are often adjudicated after a year or even longer whereas individuals scheduled for an interview at a USCIS field office normally obtain a decision and their green card within 6–8 months of filing. For the past two years, USCIS has repeatedly stated that it is trying to resolve this problem; however, delays continue. According to the latest USCIS update released on April 16, 2015, USCIS hopes to bring these cases within the regular four-month NBC processing time by the end of this fiscal year – September 30, 2015. We can only hope this means all delayed cases will be adjudicated by this date and going forward all interview-waivable cases will be processed within four months.